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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
There are a couple of good threads on tuning a Harley on other forums, but I thought I’d throw one together highlighting the use of the TTS tuning software for Harleys, using tables for the XR1200 as an example.

Introduction:
Choices to tune a Harley abound. In general (at least in the U.S.), the most common full-featured tuning methods for a Harley seem to be the use of the original HD SERT, the newer HD Pro Super Tuner (sometimes referred to as the Super SERT), the TTS MasterTune/V-Tune software, and the Dynojet Performance PC III or PC V. There are others. For instance, TechnoResearch’s Direct-Link is said to be the most versatile and most technically capable, but because of licensing fees it seems to only be used by shop Tuners who do a lot of tuning on builds that push the performance envelope. One difference between the PCIII/V and the other tuning applications is that the MasterTune/SERT/Direct-Link allow for re-mapping of the OEM ECM, while the PCIII and V are add-on modules which modify the ECMs base mapping.

A wide range of fuel-adders are also on the market. Some people have good luck with these units to correct fuel flow problems.

The original SERT will apparently still work with the ‘09 XR1200’s. The ‘09 XR1200 has an ECM part number of 32140-08. Although HD stopped providing maintenance for SERT maps last year, the 08 SERT maps do list the 32140-08 as a tunable ECM. The only issues that I can see are that the OEM 32163-09 Cal ID in the ’09 is newer than the SERT’s maps, and that the SERT does not provide access to some tuning features made available in the Super SERT and TTS MasterTune. Data Mode from the SERT does work fine with the ’09 XR1200 and does provide a nice option for collecting tuning data. (The “Super SERT” will work on ’09 bikes but its interface is different and I am going to stick with comparisons to the older SERT in this note.)

In this thread I’m going to focus on the use of the newer TTS MasterTune software. TTS made the original SERT for HD, and evidently let Harley market it under a licensing agreement. When the HD-TTS relationship ended, TTS updated its tuning software and began to market its tuning application on its own. The TTS tuning package and the SERT share a similar user interface. TTS, however, has added features to the MasterTune tuning application, and improved background functions in the map tables from the earlier SERT. Anyone experienced with the SERT, should be comfortable with the TTS package.

Overview of the TTS Mastertune:
First, the TTS MasterTune, like the SERT, is a software/hardware package that allows a User to fully reconfigure the firmware in the HD ECM. MasterTune, like the SERT, is not “installed” on a bike. One uses the MasterTune (and SERT) software, to re-write the ECM with a new operating “map”, via a hardware interface that connects a personal computer to the bike’s data port and provides a “lock” to the bike. Most of the features of the MasterTune software (like the SERT before it) are locked to the first bike that a User tries to program with the software (unless a User buys a multi-bike license, one software/hardware package will tune one bike).

In order to tune with the MasterTune software, one loads the software on his/her PC and opens a starter map with similar characteristics to his/her bike from a TTS provided library of maps. Then, one uses data collected on the street, from operation on a dyno, or provided by another User, to adjust the parameters in the various ECM tables to which the software allows access.

What can I adjust?

The MasterTune software allows the User/Tuner to adjust a variety of the key operating tables which the ECM uses in it’s algorithms to control the bike’s operation. In this post, I’ll just mention the tables that some consider to be the most basic tuning screens.

The below is a snapshot of a MasterTune screen, showing a drop down list of the accessible tables.



Tables such as the Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR), Volumetric Efficiency (VE), Warmup Enrichment, Cranking Fuel, Closed Loop Bias (CLB), Accel Enrichment, Decel Enleanment, Spark Advance (or Timing), and etc., etc., are adjustable by the User/Tuner. One simply selects one of the tables from the drop down list on the “Table Selection” tab, and increments or decrements the values in a cell, cells, or the whole table.

One particular table, the ECM Tuning Constants table, has an effect on many of the other tables used in the ECM. The next screen shot is a view of this table:



In the ECM Tuning Constants table, one can adjust several basic engine parameters.

On the left side of the screen one can adjust the size of the Engine Displacement, Injector Size, and IAC Crank Steps. To change these values (and values in cells of most of the other tables), one highlights the value to be changed by using the mouse to point to it and click on it, and then moves the cursor to the top of the page, and clicks on the “Increment” or “Decrement” until the desired value is reached. By changing the size of the “Units” at the top of the page, one can increment or decrement the value in larger (or smaller) steps. There are some other ways to change the values (including the transfer to and from spreadsheets), but point and click is the most basic and common method.

For most purposes, the Engine Displacement and Injector Size are set to the actual values of the engine. Unless the throttle body (TB) has been changed or modified, the IAC Crank Steps would not ordinarily be adjusted. For motors with high flowing heads and/or major cam changes, all of these parameters may be adjusted by an experienced Tuner to give more fuel flow tuning range in other tables.

On the right side of this table are tabs allowing the adjustment of the RPM Limit and the Engine Idle Temperature Management System (EITMS) on an XR1200. Other tabs are available for use in some other Big Twin or VRSC maps, but only RPM and EITMS can be adjusted on a Sportster.

The RPM Limit on a Sportster can be lowered to 4,000 RPM or raised to 8,000. Some Users lower the rev limit on bikes during the break-in period, and some Users raise the limit on bikes that have been modified.

EITMS may help bikes that are running lean and have a heat problem. Some Users turn it off on bikes that are properly tuned and do not have a heat problem.

Once the ECM Tuning Constants for engine cubes, injector size, and IAC steps have been adjusted, any later change will affect several other fuel flow maps. Generally, the ECM Tuning Constants are adjusted at the beginning of the construction of a tuning map, and are not touched after that point.

The Operating Tables:

The first table which most riders want to adjust is the AFR Table. This table does form the basis for the Air-Fuel mixture, but it is important to remember that several other tables (some adjustable and some hidden) are used to help determine the fuel mixture. A screen shot of the AFR table provided by TTS for an essentially stock XR1200 (only the air filter upgraded) follows:





((Ed Note: I'm going to break this post here because of the character limit for individual posts, and finish this in the following posts.))
 

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Discussion Starter · #2 ·
TTSMasterTune for the XR1200 (cont.)

The AFR table sets the major points used by the ECM’s internal algorithms as targets for fuel flow. The cells in the AFR table are mapped as a function of RPM vs Manifold Absolute Pressure in kPa. (Some of the other tables are mapped as RPM vs throttle Position.) The AFR table sets the areas where the engine is operating in Closed Loop, and in Open Loop mode. The HD ECM is not a full Closed Loop ECM. At points where the ECM is operating in Closed Loop mode, the ECM uses information from the narrow band O2 sensors to help maintain the AFR setting.

The ECM operates in Closed Loop mode at points where the AFR table cells are set to a value of 14.6. The value of 14.6 is used as a “switch” to enable Closed Loop operation. The actual AFR level maintained under steady-state Closed Loop operation is actually set by the Closed Loop Bias (CLB) tables. (For those of you using XIED’s, the XIED’s only affect the AFR in cells operating in Closed Loop mode.)

In operating regions where the AFR table cells are not set to 14.6, the ECM operates in Open Loop mode. The desired AFR in these cells will be the actual AFR value entered in the cell. For these cells, the ECM does not use the O2 sensors, but rather the calibration values in the VE tables to set an accurate AFR mixture.

The kicker is that information in the Warmup Enrichment, Accel Enrichment, Decel Enleanment, and (on some bikes) the hidden Power Enrichment tables, also affect the AFR in the various modes of operation. Plus, the ECM will drop out of Open Loop mode when:

  • the throttle is twisted and the engine moves up into higher kPA areas of operation where AFR is not set to 14.6 (heavy to full throttle), and when
  • the engine is hit with a sudden high load (eg. sudden accel on a hill, or when more throttle is suddenly applied from a low RPM like when trying to accel through a changing traffic light or trying to maneuver around an errant cager).
The All Important VE Tables:
The AFR table is just the primary target for Air-Fuel mixture. In Open Loop mode, the AFR table itself does not mean anything unless it is calibrated to your engine build. Harley writes separate front and rear cylinder Volumetric Efficiency (VE) tables for the ECM which calibrate the ECM to the OEM engine build, in order to make the AFR calculations accurate.

Once the VEs are accurately set, for the environmental conditions which match the ones used at the time the engine is tuned (the same air temp, altitude, humidity, etc.), the AFR table will be calibrated to the engine. Unfortunately, no one knows whether they are riding under the same conditions that HD used when they tuned the configuration. Also, any change made to the bike’s pipes, intake, or the engine itself, will alter the air flow and change the tune.

Here are a few words from the TTS manual explaining what VE is:

Volumetric efficiency is a percentage rating of how much air is flowing through the engine while running as compared to its theoretical capacity.

For example, an engine with a displacement of 88-cubic inches running at 5600 rpm at full throttle has a theoretical airflow capacity of 100% when it flows about 143-cubic feet of air per minute, (cfm). If the same engine flows 107cfm at 5600 rpm it would have a VE of about 75%.
If the engine flows about 157cfm at 5600 rpm it would have a VE of about 110%. Note the VE can exceed 100%, especially in high performance engines that have improved airflow through the engine. VE reacts to engine speed and to anything that increases or decreases airflow through the engine.

The following is a screen shot of the VE table for a front cylinder in a typical XR1200 with only a free’er flowing air cleaner installed:



There is a separate VE table for the rear cylinder. Adjusting these two tables forms the basis for establishing accurate AFR settings when the engine is tuned.

Depending on whether a Tuner uses:
· a dyno with wideband O2 sensors and pencil and paper,
· a dyno and computer-based wideband tuning system like the Daytona Sensors II+ kit, or
· on-the-street tuning with a computer-based wideband tuning system, or something like the V-tune software included with MasterTune,

completely tuning of the front and rear VE tables can take from 2 to 8 hours (and sometimes even more time for a high-cube, high-performance build). Complete and accurate tuning of the VE tables is one of the main things that a rider obtains from a good Tuner. This is a key factor in making a bike both rideable and capable of delivering high full-throttle HP/TQ numbers.

You may have noticed that VE is mapped as RPM vs. Throttle Position. This is intended to allow for accurate calibration of the engine AFR delivery at any specific TB opening and RPM position, while the HD speed density ECM varies AFR dependent on engine load.

And what about the Adaptive Fuel Value tables?

In the XR1200, as in other Closed Loop HD models, the Adaptive Fuel Values are used to generate corrected (or learned or "New") VE values by the ECM as a basis for AFR delivery. The front and rear cylinder tables of Adaptive Fuel Values are created based on the feedback from the O2 sensors. From TTS:

Adaptive Fuel Values (AFV) are learned fuel correction values that are used to correct fuel delivery to maintain correct closed-loop AFR. Effectively, these corrections alter the effective VE value read from the VE table. These values are learned during closed-loop operation and retained between engine starts. They are intended to compensate for normal engine variations and wear as well as environmental changes over time.

For this reason, these cells should be zeroed out to provide a consistent known starting point when tuning with the VE tables. The Reset AFV function accomplishes this.

Also, after making any vehicle repairs that might affect fuel mixture, the AFV should be reset.

While the Adaptive Fuel Value tables can not be seen by the user/Tuner, their effect in terms of generating "learned" VE valuses and adjusted fuel injector pulse widths can be viewed using the TTS DataMaster ECM Diagnostics software. (DataMaster is similar to the Data Mode provided with the SERT software.) An advantage of the DataMaster software is that it includes a function to manually reset Adaptive Fuel Values. By using DataMaster to clear the Adaptive Fuel Values, and then using MasterTune to take the engine out of Closed Loop during tuning, the VE values can be accurately tuned in a comparatively short time. Once the VE tables are tuned to an accurate baseline, Adaptive Fuel Values will provide slight corrections for environmental conditions in Closed Loop.

Power Enrichment (PE)

According to TTS, the developer of SERT/MasterTune, PE is not in use on the XR1200. Since HD’s implementation of PE varies in maps for different model bikes, MasterTune has given access to adjust the PE table in some of the Big Twin and VRSC tuning maps. However, since it is not operational on the XR1200, the PE tables are not accessible/adjustable for Sportster models.


((Ed note: I'm going to break this post again, here, because of the character limit on individual posts, and finish in the following post.)
 

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Discussion Starter · #3 ·
TTS Mastertune for the XR1200 (continued a bit more)

Closed Loop Operation:

As mentioned earlier, the engine only operates in Closed Loop mode while operating in AFR cells which have been set to 14.6. Although HD does not share its base ECM mapping tables, using the tuning tables provided by HD for the SERT and by TTS for the MasterTune software as a guide, Closed Loop operation is typically only enabled for the XR1200 below about 5,000 RPM and below 80 kPa of Manifold Absolute Pressure.

That means that if a rider slowly grabs about ¾ throttle, or lets the RPM rise up to 5,000 RPM, the bike will drop out of Closed Loop mode (and any installed XIED’s will stop adding fuel). Once the engine shifts to Open Loop operation, the engine relies purely on the AFR, other fuel mapping tables, and on the VE mapping to accurately deliver fuel.

Even if the engine is operating in cells that are mapped for Closed Loop operation, if the rider suddenly grabs a handful of throttle, the other tables (plus on some bikes the Power Enrichment (PE) table) come into effect.

Also, as mentioned earlier, the 14.6 value which is used in the AFR table cells to enable Closed Loop operation, is effectively just a switch. The actual AFR value which the ECM will hold under normal steady-state conditions is determined by the Closed Loop Bias (CLB) table.

Per the MasterTune help information:

The Closed-loop Bias Table:

The Closed-Loop Bias table is used to shift the AFR richer or leaner during closed-loop operation. This table is a function of engine speed and map load. The cell values are the switching voltage that the ECM controls to. A lower voltage will control leaner, and a higher number controls richer. This table is used by the ECM in addition to the AFR table to determine what AFR to control to.
This will allow you to skew the AFR about +/- .5 AFR. A switching point of 450 mV will give you about 14.7 AFR and a switch point of 798 mV will give you about 14.2 AFR. Note that due to the steepness of the O2 sensor response in this region, accuracy of these settings is only approximate. Use the MasterTune O2 Voltage Calculator to determine the bias voltage for your desired AFR.


The following screen shot is an image of a front cylinder CLB table. (The rear cylinder is separately adjustable using a similar table.):



This CLB table is typical of an original HD mapping. The value of 640 produces an AFR of about 14.6. It is a very EPA compliant setting, but can produce weak performance under mid-throttle acceleration, and a lot of heat in an air-cooled Harley engine. XIED’s effectively shift this voltage value to produce a new Closed Loop AFR (e.g. 13.8). Closed Loop AFR can be obtained by remapping the CLB tables with new values. MasterTune provides the following explanation of remapping the CLB table:

Changes to the Closed-Loop Bias table are done for the same reasons the AFR table would be changed: power, fuel economy, knock, etc. However, changing the bias voltage has the advantage of maintaining closed-loop operation with a non-stoichiometric AFR value.
Note that for RPM values greater than the max value in the table, the last row values will be in effect. For example, at 5000 RPM and 50 KPa, the bias voltage setting will be 640 mV. Similarly, MAP values outside of the column headings will either take on the first or last column values.

MasterTune provides this rather neat CLB/O2 Sensor Voltage Calculator. Some typical values are displayed in the following screen shot. The front and rear CLB tables can accept values from 400 (an AFR of about 14.7 ) to 840 (an AFR of about 13.6).

So, by adjusting the AFR, VE, and CLB tables, a User/Tuner can tune an engine for optimal fuel flow requirements, depending upon the User’s riding style and performance requirements.

Note: Some techs believe that changing the CLB bias voltage tables values outside of the linear range of operation of the O2 sensors (including the use of XIED’s), will shorten the life of O2 sensors.

And Then There was Timing:

MasterTune, like the SERT offers the ability to individually tune front and rear timing throughout the full operating range of the engine. In the XR1200, the separate, front and rear, Spark Advance tables provide timing adustments from 1000 to 7500 RPM.



Without delving into timing tuning strategies, timing can be relatively easily optimized by advancing it until the engine just starts to remove timing using its anti-knock protective sensor, and then backing it back down 1-2 degrees. If done on a hot dry day, the timing will be set to a point where it will not normally be retarded by the anti-knock function or ping under load. Data collected from the DataMaster function can be used for timing adjustment.

And Ain’t That Sweet!

One of the key things that the MasterTune application provides, that was not included in the SERT, is the ability to save the current (or OEM) map configuration in the ECM, before making modifications. This includes the ability to save the original ECM mapping of the XR1200. The “Save or Restore Factory Calibration” function from the File tab (shown below) is used to perform this function.



While some of us would love to see what is in the Factory Calibration, for legal reasons TTS does not allow the viewing of this encrypted file. Also, the saved calibration can only be restored to the ECM from which it was saved. That means that if one wants to keep the factory ECM calibration, first one must save the factory calibration and carefully store the file, and later the saved file may only be reloaded to the bike from which it was originally downloaded. The Save and Restore function is however, one MasterTune function which is not locked to a single bike. A User can use the MasterTune function to save the original Factory Calibration from any bike, provided he/she remembers to identify the saved file for possible return to that particular bike at a later date.

That’s All for the Moment

There is an awful lot to tuning, and the use of tuning software. This isn’t intended to be a tuning primer – just some background on a tuning application. There are a number of advanced methods to use this software, and I’ll be happy to point some out later – or any of you other tuning experts out there are welcome to chime in!

If this was useful to anyone, I’ll post again later regarding some of the other tuning tables in this application, and how to use other applications to improve the XR1200’s tune. I’ll stay away from tuning suggestions, since there are varying opinions about what helps/hurts performance and ridability…
 

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It aint no good locking the doors, when the madnes
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This EFI stuff really gets my back up, it's so very complicated :eek:
All these different adjustments that can be made are way over the top from where I'm standin' but then again i am stupid, so that dont help!

It all seems to much after all these years with carb's, all of these adjustments just aint possible with a carb, and for that reason i just dont get this EFI buisness....Damned witchcraft if yer ask me!

I,m gonna stick with the XIED's untill something easy to use comes along, (that i dont have to rob a bank to afford) or in an ideal world i would love to stick a carb on this thing. :)
 

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too funny...

This EFI stuff really gets my back up, it's so very complicated :eek:
All these different adjustments that can be made are way over the top from where I'm standin' but then again i am stupid, so that dont help!

It all seems to much after all these years with carb's, all of these adjustments just aint possible with a carb, and for that reason i just dont get this EFI buisness....Damned witchcraft if yer ask me!

I,m gonna stick with the XIED's untill something easy to use comes along, (that i dont have to rob a bank to afford) or in an ideal world i would love to stick a carb on this thing. :)
Lol, Scotty, yer like one of those natives of an undiscovered tribe in deep Africa, who, upon seeing an explorer with a flashlight, thinks they're seeing God!

C'mon brother, I'm an old school guy too but I know the worst fuel injector is better than the best carburator. It's the new millenium for god's sake! Embrace the fear!

This efi stuff and adjustable tuners are the new standard. I don't understand completely either, that's why I enjoyed the post.

Come with us Scotty! Walk toward the light!
 
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Discussion Starter · #8 ·
TTS MasterTune - The other Tables for the XR1200…

Ok, just in case, here are the rest of the tuning tables available in Mastertune (and in a similar form in the SERT application). I'm going to lay all of this stuff out here, and then comment on the couple of tables that a User may really want to touch, and why.

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I mentioned a little about some of the tuning tables that MasterTune makes available for tuning the XR1200 in the previous posts. These include the:

Engine Tuning Constants
AFR Table
VE Tables (Front and Rear)
CLB Tables (Front and Rear)
Timing Tables (Front and Rear)

Also, I mentioned that Adaptive Fueling tables exist in the background for the XR1200, but are not adjustable. The Adaptive Fuel Values are apparently cleared when a new map is flashed into the ECM and MasterTune does allow for manually resetting/clearing the Adaptive Fuel Values to speed tuning, using its associated DataMaster data monitoring/recording program. Power Enrichment (PE) which exists in the big twin ECMs, is not enabled in the Sportster ECMs.

Also, I mentioned that DataMaster can be used to record and restore the original ECM configuration. (But not to view or edit it.)

So, What Else is There?

MasterTune (and the SERT software) allow a User/Tuner to also adjust the following parameters:

Warmup Enrichment
Accel Enrichment
Decel Enleanment
Idle RPM
IAC Warmup Steps

In addition to these values, MasterTune also allows adjusting the following values - which gives increased versatility in tuning specialized builds and unique engine configurations:

Cranking Fuel
Spark Temperature Correction
Closed Throttle Spark
IAC Crank to Run

All of these tables can be very useful in tuning bikes with major mods, and in fixing specific operating issues. I have attached some screen shots of what these tables look like.

First the Warmup Enrichment. Generally Warmup Enrichment should not have to be adjusted on an XR1200. It probably can be decreased on the XR1200's, but there is no reason to touch it, unless you are having a problem Here it is:



Accel Enrichment. Generally Accel Enrichment should not have to be adjusted on an XR1200. On a bike that is built, has a larger TB and high flowing exhaust, Accel Enrichment might need to be increase to help with a larger initial pulse of fuel when the throttle is first twisted. Think of it like the accelerator pump on a carb'ed bike. There is no reason to touch it, unless you are having a problem Here it is:



Decel Enleanment. Decel Enleanment can be reduced, to help eliminate popping on a bike with a free flowing exhaust. There is no reason to touch it, unless you are having a problem with exhaust popping on decel. Here it is:



Idle RPM. A lot of people seem to like to play with their Idle RPM. This is the place to do it. Idle RPM can be adjusted as a function of engine temperature. Reducing idle RPM will generally reduce the voltage and oil pressure provided at idle. The XR1200 seems to idle fine, but if you want to change it, this is the table. Here it is:



IAC Warmup Steps. This table affects how wide the IAC stepper motor opens when the bike is started and is first warming up. Unless one builds the motor and/or installs a larger throttle body, this should not have to be adjusted. A sign that it needs to be adjusted is a bike that when initially started surges to a higher RPM and then quickly settles down, cranks a long time on start, or oscillates around a steady idle. There is no reason to touch it, unless you are having a problem with starting or keeping a stable idle RPM. Here it is:








I've hit the attachment limit, so I'll show the remaining tables in a following post...
 

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Discussion Starter · #9 ·
TTS MasterTune - The final four Tables for the XR1200…

These last four tables are available in MasterTune to adjust the XR1200. They give increased versatility in tuning specialized builds and unique engine configurations. They are not available in the SERT, and unless someone does major engine mods to an XR1200, should generally never have to be touched. They are the:

Cranking Fuel
Spark Temperature Correction
Closed Throttle Spark
IAC Crank to Run

I'm providing a look for info purposes only. Don't read this post if you are already overwhelmed - most XR1200 Users/Tuners should never have to touch these...

Cranking Fuel.



Spark Temperature Correction.



Closed Throttle Spark. This table could be used to help reduce severe cases of backfiring on decel, but most adjustment can usually be take care of with the Decel Enleanment table. Don't adjust this unless you are having a severe problem.



IAC Crank to Run.




And that is it for the tuning tables. Like I mentioned, the tables in this post should generally never have to be touched.

Because the XR1200 is a pretty good engine combination as is, there are only a few tables that the User/Tuner should have to touch. I'll mention which these are in a next post.

Don't worry Scotty, it aint carb's, but it aint rocket science....
 

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It aint no good locking the doors, when the madnes
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Hey Phaedrus, can you try and keep this stuff as simple as possible, their are gonna be quite a few folks (me included) that are gonna find this all a little over their heads, and for that reason aint gonna understand it.
We need to try and keep these sort of posts as user friendly as possible. I have seen so many EFI threads on other forums that only two or three people post on, usually because most of the high tech talk goes beyond most peoples technical abilities.
Just a thought :)
 

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Warning! Fat people are harder to kidnap.
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Damn, I guess that's why I pay for dyno tuning by someone that knows what they're doing. Programming is cool but I limit it to my remote control. Be carefull not to become a PC biker instead of a throttle twisting biker. Can I make this Fosters oil can richer? Leaning out to me is light beer! Nevermind! :D:cool::eek: Later,
 
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Discussion Starter · #12 ·
Hey Phaedrus, can you try and keep this stuff as simple as possible, their are gonna be quite a few folks (me included) that are gonna find this all a little over their heads, and for that reason aint gonna understand it.
We need to try and keep these sort of posts as user friendly as possible. I have seen so many EFI threads on other forums that only two or three people post on, usually because most of the high tech talk goes beyond most peoples technical abilities.
Just a thought :)
Worry not, Scotty. It's kind of like when someone explains the whole notion of ghosts to you, and you think they are crazy! Eventually though you say - "why not?" And then some day you head toward the light.

Laying out all that is behind the curtain is intimidating, but hey, it's done.

Now when it gets down to it, there are only 4 or 5 table types that are going to matter to an XR1200 owner (until we start seeing major engine builds). Three of these combine to make AFR changes, the 4th is the pair of timing tables, and if people start hearing a lot of popping when they change pipes the 5th one would fix most of that.

And besides, I'm looking for you to do the first EFI to Carb, parts list for the XR1200!
 

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Many thanks for the info Phaedrus

I appreciate the time you spent as it is helping me understand the system. I have been reading hdmd88's v-tune instructions on the v-twinforum and also "another" Scotty on hdforums.com.au and it is all coming together.
Cheers
Pete
 

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Creaks When Walks...
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Wow!

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Outstanding thread, and terrific information, Phaedrus.

Well and logically explained and detailed where even the most novice of layman can understand it. My hat's off to you. Please continue... :)

And Scotty, as you would say...

Chill dude, chill ;)
Some of us are really enjoying Phaedrus' posts about the Master Tune system. Just because he posts about it doesn't mean you have to buy the system, or even read the thread. Please don't don't try and influence how he presents his information simply because you don't like the subject matter.

That's not fair to the rest of us who enjoy his explanation and efforts.

And I'm not the least bit upset, Scotty... :D

Dallara



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Discussion Starter · #15 ·
The ECM's AFR table and the XR1200

So - to actually use all of this nonsense - one of the more important things to understand, is the AFR table and how the engine moves through it as you ride.

Unlike a carb’ed bike, an EFI bike can vary its fuel delivery at almost every RPM and throttle combination. Harley uses the RPM vs. engine load relationship (speed-density) to determine fuel (and timing) mapping.

A typical AFR table for the XR1200 looks like the following one from TTS (a SERT AFR table for the Sportster looks very similar, except that it has a couple of different RPM rows and MAP columns):



I put some labels on this AFR table to show which values the engine is actually using to calculate fuel delivery, as you ride down the road (Don’t crucify me for not placing the markings exactly, I’m just trying to show relative areas in the fuel map.)




In very general terms, the engine is in:
  • the upper left corner of the table at idle,
  • the left center of the table while cruising,
  • the right center of the table while twisting the throttle doing moderate to heavy acceleration,
  • the right-end column of the table while at Wide Open Throttle (WOT), and
  • and the bottom-left corner of the table when the engine is winding down during sudden deceleration.
What does this mean to you? Well, a couple of things.

An engine can be tuned to deliver great peak HP and TQ numbers, but have lousy low and mid-throttle performance if the Tuner doesn’t fully map the engine.

But probably most important - the level of control provided in the ECM mapping allows a good Tuner to deliver both good peak HP and TQ numbers, and good low to mid-throttle performance. On an EFI XR1200 there is no reason for a trade-off in low-throttle and WOT performance (except perhaps for lack of Tuner skill) due strictly to tuning.

Now, in order for the AFR to mean anything, the CLB values need to be set to give the desired Closed Loop fuel mixture, and the VE tables need to be tuned to the engine. The combination of good selection of AFR values, a smart choice of CLB values, and accurate tuning of the front/rear VE tables is what will ensure the XR1200 receives the proper amount of fuel to meet your performance objectives.

To just delve into AFR selection slightly, the canned AFR map shown above (and the ones in the SERT software) will protect the engine, but not necessarily give peak performance. You can see in the table above that the 90/100 kPa columns (WOT territory) are far too rich and will wash out power; the cells down at idle are too lean and will produce heat; and the 60 through 75 kPa columns (where one would while cruising the highway or riding twisties) are too lean and will either run hot at high highway speeds or not give good acceleration in the twisties.

Right off the bat, the XR1200’s performance can be improved by better AFR mapping. The below table is a “for instance” of an improved AFR map:



– depending on the rider’s performance objectives and tuning information from the track or dyno, an optimum map for the bike can be dialed in. Even the above is probably too rich at WOT, but it would give a safe starting point for VE and Timing tuning. But we can talk about VE and CLB adjustments in a later post.


just some errant thoughts from a misguided fellow….
 

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Discussion Starter · #16 ·
The other major part of AFR in the HD ECM

While , the AFR table sets the primary fuel targets for the ECM, its values don’t mean much without the accompanying CLB and VE tables. Ignoring for a moment the enrichment tables, AFR cells which contain “14.6” in them put the ECM in Closed Loop mode in that area of operation. AFR table cells with any other value put the ECM in Open Loop mode requesting the AFR that is entered.

Closed Loop

As mentioned earlier, in Closed Loop the ECM uses the CLB table to set the AFR. HD supposedly sets the CLB table to produce an AFR of 14.6 in Closed Loop mode. That may be great for the EPA, but it also makes for a hot engine. One of the first things a User/Tuner can do to improve performance in the XR1200 and lower the engine temp a bit is to remap the CLB table from its stock setting similar to this:



and change the values to something like this:



A value of 800 will give a Closed Loop AFR of about 14.2.
A value of 820 will give a Closed Loop AFR of about 13.9.
A value of 840 will give a Closed Loop AFR of about 13.6.

Although the ECM can be mapped to stay in Closed Loop mode up to 90 kPa, typical HD mapping for a Sportster does not keep it in Closed Loop mode above 80 kPa. Also, the rapid load changes that usually come with heavy-throttle usage can almost always be expected to drop the ECM out of Closed Loop mode. That just means that the higher kPa mapping of the CLB table is more to complete data for the algorithms, than to serve any practical purpose.

Also, one could map the CLB even more aggressively at lower kPa values, but it is believed that pushing the narrow band O2 sensors out of their linear range of operation for any length of time reduces their life.

Open Loop

In Open Loop, the ECM relies on the front/rear VE tables to calibrate the AFR delivery for the engine. Performance riders will benefit from a full mapping of the VE tables. Tuning is a whole discussion in itself, but a good dyno operator can tune the VE well by using his wideband O2 sensors and charting the AFR, alternately the Daytona Sensors wideband kit works well for VE mapping, or the TTS DataMaster and SERT Data Mode can provide good data on the ECM operation for VE mapping, and finally the TTS V-Tune can help simplify VE mapping. A lot of good tools are out there, and several of these will let a rider fully map his/her bike on the street. But – tuning the VE tables can be intimidating and a good bit of the cost of a dyno tune goes toward the Tuner’s time in completely mapping VE.

And that is a good place to stop….
 

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It aint no good locking the doors, when the madnes
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Outstanding thread, and terrific information, Phaedrus.

Well and logically explained and detailed where even the most novice of layman can understand it. My hat' off to you. Please continue... :)

And Scotty, as you would say...



Some of us are really enjoying Phaedrus' posts about the Master Tune system. Just because he posts about it doesn't mean you have to buy the system, or even read the thread. Please don't don't try and influence how he presents his information simply because you don't like the subject matter.

That's not fair to the rest of us who enjoy his explanation and efforts.

And I'm not the least bit upset, Scotty... :D

Dallara



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Well Dallara, I'm glad you are enjoying it, but this "novice of a layman" does not take to it very easily.
Maybe its just because i aint as clued up as your good self in all things mechanical :rolleyes:
But i am willing to bet there are more here like me than like you.

My earlier post is just asking for things to be kept as simple as possible, so the less gifted of us unlike yourself, can keep up.........I am humbled to be in such presence as yourself o knower of all things motorcycle related.
Please forgive me for trying to keep things simple i do humbly appologise, i just thought it was a good idea......never mind :rolleyes:

This is a forum which is meant for the masses and i would just like the masses to be able to understand as much of what is being posted as possible, i have no problem with Phaedrus's posts (and i dont think for one minute he has taken any offense by what i have said, so i dont really see why you should!) i am just asking for things to be kept as simple as possible, ti's all ;)
If you personally have an issue with that, i honestly dont give a rats ass! :D


By the way, i would just like to take the opportunity to wish you a merry X-mas for later this year :D
 

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Creaks When Walks...
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Bit over the top, wouldn't you say?

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I apologize if you took offense at my post, Scotty. None was intended. Seems you have often misunderstood my posts and my meaning... Sorry for that.

I only mentioned you commenting on Phaedrus' posts because I had not seen anyone else anywhere in the thread with saying anything about his explanations or illustrations being too complex or hard to understand. On the contrary, it seemed those that had commented thought his material was very enlightening.

I concur and agree with you that hopefully information presented here on this board is clear, concise, and easily understandable to as many as possible. That said, I honestly think that everybody here is awfully smart and well able to understand everything Phaedrus has presented. After all, it isn't rocket surgery... or brain science... Wait, I think I mean rocket science or brain surgery. Yeah, that's it! :D

As I have mentioned in another post, I don't have any issue with you, Scotty. I just don't want anybody like Phaedrus to feel in any way self-conscious about posting their knowledge like his. Certainly if anyone was lost or confused anywhere they could ask questions and I am sure he would be happy to answer them. I honestly don't think we are dealing with anyone like our old friend Whittlebeast here. Phaedrus seems to be presenting a much more logical, useable, and understandable approach than what you and I saw on the other board with Whittle... Don't you think? :)

I will say I enjoy sarcasm as much as the next person, but I honestly thought some of your comments above aimed at me were a bit over the top and leaning a bit toward insult. I hope they were not intended that way.

Thanks, and I do hope you will accept and understand these comments as intended.

Dallara



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It aint no good locking the doors, when the madnes
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Like i said, I have no problem with Phaedrus's posts, and please do not mention that name (whistlebreast) on here again :eek:
i just want things to be kept as simple as possible, thats it, over and out, Roger that good buddy, ten four, rubber duck, by god i think we got us a convoy!

Ya just gotta laugh aint ya!
 
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Discussion Starter · #20 ·
Didn't want to invoke bad memories from other forums,

But I thought laying out the tech stuff behind the curtain might be useful for highlighting a couple of practical points.

The first is that peak HP and TQ numbers from the dyno have little to do with ridability on the street, or the seat-of-the-pants feeling changes in accelerating while cornering - unless the rider is always holding a wide open throttle. TQ improvements for ridability come from properly mapping the VE throughout the full tables. And that's why good mapping and better AFR selection on the "left side" of the AFR table can produce even more improvement for performance on the XR1200.

Also, one doesn't have to give up peak HP to gain more peak TQ when just tuning fuel delivery on an EFI bike. There aren't any jetting tradeoffs, just better mapping of another segment of the table (or tables). Real peak HP vs peak TQ tradeoffs should only come from changing pipes or other components.

And, maybe my pet peeve - one doesn't install a SERT, MasterTune or Direct-Link on a bike, one uses the software to remap the bike's ECM. PC III/V's and fuel adders are installed on the bike to modify the ECM's signals.

I didn't mean to strike any nerves here.
 
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